Androgenic anabolic steroids, growth hormone, insulin, diuretics, aromatase inhibitors, SERMs, CNS stimulants were all manufactured by chemists and physicians, in order to treat specific diseases in certain types of patients. It is obvious that athletes and coaches abuse them in multiplied doses, compared to what is medically recommended. Pharmaceutical performance-enhancing drugs are medically prescribed by doctors and are strictly prohibited for athletes in many leagues and organizations. Their use should obey to the ethics of Hippocrates law. Moreover, their use is against the laws of the International Olympic Committee. Therefore, all of these drugs should be used safely, under the guidance of an MD. The following drugs are classified into different groups and they all have certain medical uses:
- Tamoxifen Citrate: This is an anti-estrogenic agent, belonging to the group of Specific Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM). Originally (Nolvadex-Astra Zeneca) was the official medication for breast cancer, before potent AI’s were available. It is used during a Post Cycle Therapy schedule, for bodybuilders who try to restore their Hypothalamic Pituitary Testicular Axis (HPTA).
- Clomiphene Citrate: This is another SERM, that is medically prescribed from gynecologists. It has the ability to promote ovulation in women who are trying to get pregnant. It is combined with Tamoxifen citrate during PCT.
- Fluoxymesterone: This is a potent 17 alkylated oral AAS with high androgenic-anabolic activity, which is a testosterone derivative. It (Halotestin) does not convert into estrogen (aromatization processing) and was used for the treatment of breast cancer, even before AI’s were manufactured (late 90’s).
- Oxymetholone: This is another 17 alkylated oral AAS, which is a DHT derivative. It was synthesized in order to treat aplastic anemia. It was an alternative treatment (Anadrol 50) even before synthetic EPO was synthesized (late 90’s).
- Stanozolol: This is also a 17 alkylated AAS both in oral and injectable (suspension) forms. It is a DHT derivative, highly anabolic with weak androgenic properties. It was medically prescribed for patients suffering from the inflammatory disease angioedema. Other uses of Stanozolol (Winstrol-Zambon/Desma) are muscle wasting/cachexia, anemia, and osteoporosis.
- Methandienone-Methandrostenolone: This is a 17 alkylated oral as well. It is a methyltestosterone derivative, that has high estrogenic activity (aromatase enzyme). It was the first AAS on the market, manufactured back in the mid-’50s by the American Dr. John Zigler (1954). The main use of it (Dianabol) was post-traumatic syndrome and recovery after a surgical procedure, promoting anabolism, increasing appetite and glycogen retention restore.
- Oxandrolone: This is another 17 alkylated AAS, a DHT derivative with high anabolic and low androgenic activity. Its medical use was against muscle wasting that occurs in AIDS (HIV+) patients. Another case where (Anavar-Watson) was used was during burns in hospitalized patients.
- Methenolone: This is a DHT derivative AAS (injectable-enanthate/oral-acetate, no longer manufactured) with moderate anabolic and mild androgenic activity. It is used (Primobolan Depot-Bayer/Schering) against cachexia in old males and during muscle wasting that takes place in cancer patients.
- Nandrolone: This injectable AAS is a 19nortestosterone derivative. It is widely used (Deca Durabolin-Organon) in cases of bone fractures, or in menopausal women with low bone mineral density, against osteopenia/osteoporosis. Nandrolone Undecanoate can also treat cachexia in old males during andropause.
- Testosterone: This is the major androgen in males and its purpose was mainly to treat hypogonadism males, suffering from secondary hypogonadism. Also, Klinefelter's syndrome patients (47XXY) use testosterone, in order to boost their weak androgenic characteristics.
- Mesterolone: This is an oral AAS, described as a synthetic form of Dihydroxytestosterone. Its medical purpose (Proviron-Bayer/Schering) was to help older males to have a better sexual drive, to fight against dementia, depression and muscle wasting.
- Drostanolone: That is an injectable AAS, described as another synthetic form of DHT. Initially, it (Masteron) was used for female patients with breast cancer, as an alternative treatment.
- Ephedrine HCL: This drug belongs to the class of adrenergic sympathetic mimetic CNS stimulants. It has the ability to promote peripheral vasoconstriction and improve dramatically the symptoms during allergic rhinitis (nose running) during flu. It (Efedrin-Asan) improved the user's nasal obstruction.
- Clenbuterol HCL: This compound is a beta 2 agonist. It has the ability to promote bronchodilation, thus improving dramatically bronchial asthmatic crisis and upper respiratory airways obstruction. It is available either in the oral form of a tablet, or liquid form of syrup. Its use (Spiropent-Boehringer Ingelheim) was combined with Salbutamol (Aerolin-Glaxo), which is a b2 inhaler too.
- Somatropin (HGH): Growth Hormone use is strictly for dwarf teenagers who have impaired growth, before the age of 18. Another medical use (of Humatrope-Lilly ) in the USA, is to prevent muscle wasting in HIV+/AIDS patients.
- Insulin: This hormone is manufactured strictly for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type I patients, that can’t produce their own metabolic hormone from the islets of Langerhans in the pancreatic gland. (Humulin-Humaloge/Lilly), comes in two different acting hormones (fast/slow action).
- HCG: This is an LH analog, a peptide that resembles GnRH. It acts as a Luteinizing Hormone mimicker, thus boosting the endogenous production of testosterone from Leydig cells of testicles. Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropi’s use in male boys, helped to treat the symptom of Krypto-orchids, meaning the absence of testicles in the scrotum during puberty. (Pregnyl-Organon) β-hCG is a female hormone produced from the placenta, during the early weeks of pregnancy.
- Spironolactone, Furosemide: These are two diuretics that act differently. The former is a potassium-sparing, while the later is a non-potassium sparing compound. Both (Aldactone-Pfizer & Lasix-Sanofi Aventis) is used against Pulmonary Edema, during Left Heart Failure. Another medical cause for their use is systemic hypertension. But they also can be used in glaucoma (hypertension in the eyeball).
- Erythropoietin: This hormone is produced from kidneys during cases of hypoxia. Patients suffering from chronic renal failure, that undergo renal dialysis, are given EPO to promote erythropoiesis and fight against anemia.
- Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3): Thyroid hormones are treating abnormalities concerning the thyroid glands function, such as hypothyroidism. The thyroid glands regulate BMR in the human body.
- Aminoglutethimide: This is a cortisol blocker, that inhibits glucocorticosteroid production from the adrenal glands. It (Orimeten-Novartis) was medically prescribed for Cushing syndrome patients.
- Metformin: This is a hypoglycemic compound, that lowers insulin resistance to cells and improves insulin sensitivity in cells membrane receptors. Glucophage is medically prescribed for patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (noninsulin-dependent), with glycemia and elevated Hg A1c.
- Anastrozole (Arimidex-Astra Zeneca), Letrozole (Femara-Novartis), Exemestane (Aromasin-Pfizer): They all belong to the group of Aromatase Inhibitors and they are used for the treatment of breast cancer.
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